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Archive for the ‘Audio Forensics’ Category

The Importance of Establishing a Chain of Custody for Audio/Video Evidence

Friday, February 19th, 2016

The Importance of Establishing a Chain of Custody for Audio/Video EvidenceEstablishing a chain of custody for audio and video evidence is the first step in any audio or video forensic investigation. This includes audio/video forensic enhancement, audio/video authentication. Where did the evidence come from? Who created the recording that is being entered into evidence?

A chain of custody is the documentation of who did what to evidence and when was it done. A chain of custody includes people, dates, places, activity and the recording of that information to establish the chain of custody. What has been done since the evidence was created? The chain of custody refers to both digital and analogue audio or video evidence.

The chain of custody for a piece of evidence is important to the legal community because it adds credibility to the audio/video evidence. However, it is common for law enforcement and others in the legal community to often overlook establishing a chain for audio/video evidence. It’s not because of neglect but more often due to lack of training or understanding the importance of the process.

Unfortunately, audio/video recordings are sometimes entered into evidence without documenting the evidence recovery process. When this is the case, if both parties agree that the evidence is acceptable, and tamper free, the audio/video recording is established as the ‘original’ and the chain of custody begins there.

An audio/video chain of custody begins with the evidence recovery process. This is the process of forensically removing the original audio/video recording from the recorder that created it. Based on our experience at Primeau Forensics, once both parties in a criminal or civil litigation agree on an original, they request each side’s forensic expert to establish a protocol for recovering the audio/video evidence. This protocol is written step by step instructions created by one of the experts, then negotiated and or modified and revised until the protocol is established.

Over the last 32 years practicing as lead expert at Primeau Forensics, Ed Primeau has worked with evidence recordings from client lawyers who received recordings from the police. Whenever evidence is not retrieved personally, the police reports, depositions, and other court documents that accompany the evidence must be carefully read to understand how it was acquired. This paper trail must establish a timeline; a chronological listing that accounts for the recovery, custody, transfer and storage of the evidence because the lack of an established chain of custody can easily overturn a conviction on appeal.

Ronald Johnson and Laquan McDonald – WGN9 Chicago Interview

Tuesday, December 8th, 2015

There are two Chicago Police Department shooting videos that have been in the news lately, Laquan McDonald and Ronald Johnson.

On November 24, 2015, police video that captured the shooting of Laquan McDonald in Chicago, Illinois was released to the public, almost 13 months after the incident took place. There has been a public outcry regarding not only the death of McDonald, but also the videos themselves.

Ronald Johnson was shot and killed by police officers in October of 2014 while fleeing into a Chicago public park. It is debated whether Johnson was armed or not. Over a year later, video footage was finally released after months of Johnson’s family pushing for the footage to be made public.

In an interview this morning on WGN Chicago, our lead audio video forensic expert Ed Primeau explained the importance of video in both cases. He also discusses the low quality of video that has been presented to the public, as well as the role of a video forensic expert.

Forensic Audio Enhancement -Equalization

Wednesday, July 1st, 2015

Forensic Audio Enhancement -EqualizationEqualizers can be one of the most important tools to any audio engineer, and especially an Audio Forensic Expert. There are many different types of equalizers with different capabilities, but the core functions are always the same. Equalizers allow the user to increase or decrease the level of different frequency ranges or ‘frequency bands.’ Each frequency band is typically marked by its center frequency, while the width of the band will vary between different equalizers. Some equalizers even allow the frequency band and the width to be adjusted.

Having these controls at your disposal when performing an audio enhancement is crucial. Noise and other extraneous frequency content is usually the biggest issue with audio recordings. Equalizers and filters offer the ability to remove narrow ranges of frequencies so that these noises can, for the most part, be removed from the recording while leaving other frequencies untouched.

When using an equalizer, it’s important to be careful boosting and cutting different ranges. Sometimes removing a certain noise may sound helpful at first, but there could also be a lot of important voice content in the same range. Making the proper adjustments with an equalizer requires both experience with the equipment, critical listening skills, and a lot of trial and error. The more time you spend working with audio and equalizers, the more familiar you will become with different frequency ranges and how to best go about improving the quality of different recordings.

Now listen in with Audio and Video Forensic Expert Ed Primeau as he discusses the use of equalizers in forensic audio enhancements.

21: Audio Enhancement – Compression

Thursday, May 28th, 2015

21: Audio Enhancement - CompressionAs an Audio Forensic Expert, knowing what tools are available to me and how they work is extremely important. While compressors are often thought of as tools for music production, they serve many functions in the Audio Forensic world. Like with most audio signal processors, it takes training and experience to operate compressors properly and effectively when enhancing audio.

When an audio enhancement is required, the recorded signal is often very low, or the desired source is unbalanced, with other signals in the recording. Compressors can increase the gain of a recording while also balancing the levels of the sound sources. While different compressors will vary, most have the same basic controls. These include the threshold, attack, release, ratio and makeup gain.

It is easy to focus on raising the level of the desired signal with a compressor and produce a loud, but unintelligible work product. Sometimes a smaller amount of compression may have a more positive effect on the audio. An experienced Audio Forensic Expert will know how to effectively clarify the recording based on his or her knowledge of audio and signal processing.

Now listen in with Audio and Video Forensic Expert Ed Primeau as he discusses the use of compressors in forensic audio enhancements.

Audio Enhancement – Noise Reduction

Friday, April 3rd, 2015

Audio Enhancement - Noise ReductionMost recordings that I come across as an Audio Forensic Expert are made in poor condition and their biggest problem is an abundance of noise. Though there are many ways to reduce the noise floor in a recording, there is no guaranteed method. The noise floor can be defined as a sum of all of the unwanted signals in a sound source. This will include any background noise in an environment such as cars driving by, televisions or radios, or even other people besides the desired person speaking.

When reducing the noise is the best option, there are two common ways to do so in most audio editing software: noise reduction processing and filtering or equalization. Both processes have benefits and side effects when used to remove noise from a recording.

The most important thing to remember when removing noise from a recording is that the goal is to enhance or clarify the desired signal. Every audio recording is different, and as an Audio Forensic Expert it is my job to analyze and process each recording as needed. It takes training and experience to recognize what a recording needs in order to enhance or clarify it effectively.

Now listen in with Audio and Video Forensic Expert Ed Primeau as he discusses the use of noise reduction in forensic audio enhancements.

photo credit: Neve Compressors via photopin (license)

The Importance of Forensic Transcription

Monday, March 2nd, 2015

The Importance of Forensic TranscriptionOver the last 31 years as Audio/Video Forensic Experts, Primeau Forensics has developed a tool to help litigators better hear and comprehend poor quality audio recordings that are to be used in court. We are very good at audio enhancement and helping our clients know the best method of audio playback in the courtroom so everyone can hear the audio recording being played during the litigation. In hard to hear situations, a forensic transcript, signed by an audio forensic expert can be invaluable.

A forensic transcript usually begins with forensic audio enhancement which is the process of using various software programs and expert filtering to remove the unwanted sounds and increase the volume and intelligibility of the wanted sounds which are usually conversations. Background noise includes noisy furnaces, air conditioners, buzzes and hums, traffic and wind. Once the recording has been enhanced, the forensic expert uses a combination of studio grade speakers, computer speakers, headphones and ear buds to comprehend and transcribe the conversation.

A forensic transcript is a signed and declared ‘under the pains and penalties of perjury’ document of a conversation that occurred in a hard to hear recording. Even after a digital recording has been processed for audio forensic enhancement, it may be difficult to hear the entire conversation. A forensic transcript is prepared by an audio forensic expert using critical listening skills, the same expertise used for voice identification and speaker recognition. Then when the enhanced digital audio recording is played in court, the written transcript can be followed during the playback of the enhanced audio recording so everyone in can understand what is being said.

The forensic transcript can also be notarized which in a sense certifies it as ‘true and accurate beyond a reasonable degree of scientific certainty’. Each forensic transcript assignment we complete at Primeau Forensics is quoted based on the amount of audio enhancement that is required for the audio recording restoration and time it will take to listen and document the words spoken in the recorded conversation.

Forensic transcription is not limited to audio recordings. Primeau Forensics has transcribed video recordings as well. We load the video recording into our forensic computer and remove the audio track. Once the audio has been enhanced, we post the clean restored audio back onto the video. Now we have a video enhancement to help with the litigation. In some cases, we have also added the words from the forensic transcript onto the screen to read as the video is playing. One such time we used this technology was when we restored and transcribed the Air Force One audio recordings the day John F Kennedy (JFK) was assassinated. See sample of this technology below:

Air Force One Recordings from John F Kennedy (JFK) Assassination on Vimeo

17: How to Make Digital Audio Evidence

Thursday, February 12th, 2015

17: How to Make Digital Audio EvidenceAudio evidence can often be one of the most important pieces of evidence for a case, so it should always be given a great deal of attention. I’m going to cover some tips on how to create the best audio recording possible, whether it’s a police interview, a concealed recording or anything in between.

One of the most common ways people create digital audio evidence is by using digital audio recorders. Law enforcement will often use them for interrogations and confessions, and sometimes even out in the field as a backup for their dash cam or body cam audio. People outside of law enforcement use them for creating audio evidence as well.

Tips on Creating Digital Audio Recordings

  1. Choose settings on the digital recorder that optimize the quality of the audio and optimize the amount of space on the recorder.
  2. Listen and note any extraneous noise present in the area before making the recording. If at all possible, remove this sound or find a way to work around it.
  3. Get as close to the desired sound source as possible when creating the audio recording. The closer the microphone is to the sound source, the better the level of the desired signal will be.
  4. Make sure the digital audio recorder is in an optimal location. Make sure that the microphone is facing the subject and that the recorder is relatively stable to avoid extra noise. If possible, use an external microphone to get better quality audio.
  5. Always create a test recording before the actual recording. Listen back carefully and adjust the settings of the recording and the location of the recorder to make sure it is capturing the highest possible level in the best quality.

Now listen in with Audio and Video Forensic Expert Ed Primeau as he discusses the best practices for creating digital audio evidence.

photo credit: Ready to record! via photopin (license)

15: A Step-by-Step Approach to Forensic Audio Enhancement

Monday, January 19th, 2015

15: A Step-by-Step Approach to Forensic Audio EnhancementOne of the most common jobs for an Audio Forensic Expert is enhancing a digital audio recording for intelligibility and clarification.  Audio evidence is often recorded in less than optimal situations with poor quality equipment. This evidence can be vital to a case and when the content of the recording cannot be heard, the evidence can become useless.  This is why the audio enhancement process is one of the most important jobs as an Audio Forensic Expert.

There is no one way to enhance an audio recording because every recording is different and will have its own issues that make the enhancement process necessary. At the same time, it is important for the Forensic Expert to be aware of the processes available so they are prepared to handle any enhancement case that comes their way.

Critical Listening

To begin the enhancement process, the Forensic Expert should use critical listening.  Before adding any processing to the audio, they should listen through the recording multiple times and make notes on the issues they hear with the recording.  Noting different sections of the audio and marking these points can be extremely helpful when fixing different problems in the recording.

Diagnostic Tools

Some audio software includes processors that help fix clipping or clicking issues in the recording.  Using this process first will help clean up the audio as much as possible before delving into more advanced techniques.  Noise reduction is also a very helpful process for removing any background noise such that is consistent throughout the recording.

Dynamics Processing

Many recordings I receive have an overall low level to begin with and simply need an increase in gain. Compressors as well as gain plugins can help raise the overall level of the recording. Compression will also help balance all of the signals in the recording.

Equalization

Equalization is another extremely helpful tool for audio enhancement.  This will allow the Forensic Expert to remove unwanted frequencies and frequency ranges by varying amounts, as well as boost desired frequencies. When using an equalizer, the Forensic Expert should experiment using their knowledge of frequencies and what they see in the recording.

Now listen in with Audio and Video Forensic Expert Ed Primeau as he discusses the structured approach to forensic audio enhancements.

 

13: Voice Identification with Maria do Carmo Gargaglione

Thursday, December 4th, 2014

13: Voice Identification with Maria do Carmo GargaglioneMaria do Carmo Gargaglione is the Director of the Division of Digital and Technological Forensic Evidence at the Public Ministry of Rio De Janeiro.  She has been a speech-language pathologist for over thirty years.  She is an expert in voice identification, facial identification and handwriting analysis.  She began working in forensics in 2000 and began working for the Public Ministry in 2005. Since then, she has continued her education in the field of digital media forensics at any given opportunity, including the courses at the National Center for Media Forensics at the University of Colorado.  She was the first in Brazil to begin a division of digital media evidence with voice identification.

If you would like to contact Maria do Carmo, she can be reached by email at maglione@globo.com.

Now listen in as Maria do Carmo and Ed Primeau discuss different techniques used for voice identification, the importance of digital forensic work in Brazil, and advice for people interested in starting a career as an Audio Forensic Expert.

For more on Voice Identification, check out Ed Primeau’s latest book, “That’s Not My Voice!” available on Amazon.

11: Talking Forensics with Audio & Video Forensic Expert Allen Combs

Thursday, November 20th, 2014

11: Talking Forensics with Audio & Video Forensic Expert Allen CombsAllen Combs is an Audio and Video Forensic Expert with over ten years of experience in multimedia work.  He began working as an audio engineer in recording studios and continued working in music production until making the transition into digital media forensics.  When he began his forensic work, Allen was trained by Thomas Owen and in 2010 started his own company, Combs Forensic Services.  Since then, he has worked for numerous clients, including both law enforcement and private citizens, and has gained experience testifying in many of his cases.  Allen is an active member of the American College of Forensic Examiners, the American Board of Recorded Evidence and the Audio Engineering Society.  In addition to these organizations, he is also putting together an audio forensic training course with Dorothy Stout, owner of Resolution Video.

Allen Combs bases his company on integrity, professional expertise and dedication to their clientele.  If you would like to contact Allen or Combs Forensic Services, they can be reached through combsforensics.com or allen@combsforensics.com.

Now listen in as Ed Primeau and Allen Combs discuss the drastically changing market of Audio Engineering, the importance of continuing education in the digital media forensic field, and the challenges that individuals must face when taking on a career as a forensic expert.

10: How to Authenticate Digital Audio Evidence

Friday, November 14th, 2014

10: How to Authenticate Digital Audio EvidenceAuthenticating digital audio evidence and the importance of the authentication process for use in court. The chain of custody is the first step in the authentication process but does not in and of itself authenticate a piece of evidence. I have seen audio evidence that was not authentic and was stored in the original digital audio recorder that supposedly recorded it.

So why is audio authentication so important? 

The authentication process determines whether or not the audio recording in question has been tampered with.  In this age of digital audio, edits can be made and covered up very easily. There are free versions of audio editing software available on line that can make edits that alter the events or conversation that originally occurred in digital audio recordings. Most of the time, if an audio recording is edited after downloading to a computer and before authoring a CD, the editing can be detected by analyzing the audio file.

What is the process of authenticating digital audio evidence?

There are five steps that one must complete to properly authenticate digital audio evidence.

1. Establish a chain of custody. If the expert is able to retrieve the evidence from the original source, in most cases that will automatically create and establish a chain of custody. If it’s not possible for the forensic expert to retrieve the recording, then the forensic expert must carefully go through all of the documents and reports that arrived with the evidence. When the chain of custody cannot be established, the forensic examiner must rely on other techniques as well as their own expertise to determine the authenticity of the evidence.

2. Critically listen to the audio recording. During this process the expert should note unusual sounding sections in the recording, referred to as anomalies. They should place markers near any anomalies they hear for later reference when compiling a forensic report. Inconsistencies in sound quality, noise floor, and level of the recording are all important to pay attention to.  The forensic expert should use both studio monitors and headphones with flat frequency responses to best hear everything that is going on in the recording.

3. Electronically measure aspects of the recording. The forensic expert should use the audio forensic software they have to note the frequency ranges, levels and other aspects of the recording. Marking what frequency ranges voices or other sounds are in compared to the noise floor can also help the expert better detect sudden changes and other anomalies in the recording that may indicate tampering.

4. Visually inspect the audio recording. This step will go hand in hand with electronic measurement. The forensic expert should analyze the waveform characteristics and look for any anomalies present. The expert can also use spectrum analysis and spectrograms to better see the behavior of the frequencies and detect breaks or changes in the signal or noise floor.

5. Analyze the metadataThe forensic expert will also need to inspect digital information of the recording such as the hex information, sampling rate, bit depth and file format. This will need to be compared with an exemplar recording so that anomalies can be properly detected. Digital footprints are almost always left on recordings when they are created and when they are edited using other software.

For a forensic examiner to authenticate a piece of audio evidence, the examiner must prove beyond any doubt that the recording is in its original form and has not undergone any tampering.  If a piece of evidence is not authentic, it should not be used in court because it may be incomplete or altered to purport events that did not occur.

9: How to Recover Digital Media Evidence

Friday, November 7th, 2014

9: How to Recover Digital Media EvidenceI’d like to discuss evidence recovery, specifically digital media evidence recovery.  Having a forensic expert retrieve the evidence maintains the quality of the evidence and can help ensure that the original evidence stays intact on the original system so it can later be retrieved by other parties.  This is why it is extremely important that only a trained expert retrieve the evidence.  In this episode, I will cover proper procedures for evidence retrieval, proper handling of the evidence and what precautions one should take when retrieving digital media evidence from a recording system.

Steps for Proper Evidence Retrieval

1. Research before retrieving the evidence.  The forensic expert should learn everything they can about the recording system beforehand.  Connecting with the manufacturer, reading the manual and researching further online all benefit the expert.  This will make analyzing and operating the system onsite easier for the expert and optimize the retrieval process.

2. Obtain any necessary software, proprietary player or codec. If the system records proprietary or encoded files, the expert should obtain the player or codec beforehand.  If that is not possible, the expert should be prepared to install the necessary player or codec onsite from either the recording system or client.  More often than not, modern digital surveillance systems require a special codec or proprietary player and without this installed, the forensic expert will not be able to access the digital media evidence.

3. Record the evidence retrieval process. The forensic expert should record both audio and video of the evidence retrieval to include in the chain of custody and forensic report.  When I am recovering evidence from a digital recording system, I always have a VIEVU body camera on my person, as well as a digital audio recorder in my pocket.  Along with authenticating the evidence, this can serve as the expert’s notes later on in the investigation in case they need to refer to something that was discussed during the evidence retrieval.

4. Photograph and inspect the digital recording system. The forensic expert should include photographs of the unit in their report and take careful notes on anything they notice about the unit.  This could include damage, tampering or any other abnormalities they notice on the recorder.  Along with the video recording, it is usually beneficial for the expert to photograph anything they note during the process.

5. Follow the manual for the highest quality retrieval. The expert should have the manual with them when retrieving the evidence to make sure that any copy or export is in the highest quality format and does not affect the original recorded file.
photo credit: iLike iRiver via photopin (license)

7: Importance of the Chain of Custody for Digital Media Evidence

Monday, October 27th, 2014

7: Importance of the Chain of Custody for Digital Media EvidenceEstablishing chain of custody when authenticating digital media evidence for use in the courtroom is extremely important. The chain of custody must account for the seizure, storage, transfer and condition of the evidence.  The chain of custody is absolutely necessary for admissible evidence in court.

Importance to the expert

My forensic software allows me to look at the metadata or digital information of an audio or video recording, but does not always allow me to understand how a recording was created.  Just because the information is missing from the metadata does not mean that a recording has been compromised.  This is why the chain of custody information is important to a forensic examiner. It helps show where the file came from, who created it, and the type of equipment that was used.  That way, if I want to create an exemplar, I can get that equipment, create the exemplar and compare it to the evidence to confirm the file properties.

Importance to the court

When I testify in court with a piece of evidence, I am always prepared with the chain of custody.  As I mentioned earlier, without a complete chain of custody, it can become very easy for the opposing attorney or prosecutor to challenge or dismiss the evidence presented.  Having a complete chain of custody form, as well as any other accompanying forms and including any visual proof of retrieval, such as pictures or video, greatly helps prove the authenticity and admissibility of the evidence in the courtroom.

Recently, new ways of establishing a chain of custody have come about and are slowly becoming accepted in the legal community.  Online services are now available for digital evidence that record the chain of custody and who has received the evidence.  The evidence is stored in cloud space and eliminates the need for repeated transference of physical copies.  It maintains standardized security procedures and is also useful as a backup storage space for surveillance cameras.

Chain of custody is important to the court because if I find something wrong with the evidence during the authentication process, it allows me to go back and determine who was responsible for the evidence up until that point. 

Importance to the investigation

The chain of custody is important to the investigation process because it is the first step when authenticating digital audio and video evidence.  Identifying this chain of custody provides information about whether or not this evidence has been copied or cloned.  As technology advances and becomes more accessible, digital media evidence has become easier to edit, modify and alter.  The Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence (SWGDE & IOCE) defines Original Digital Evidence as, “Physical items and the data objects associated with such items at the time of acquisition or seizure.”  It is not always possible to receive the evidence from its original source at the time of acquisition or seizure.  Very often, I receive digital media evidence from a client who may have received it from the police or another source.  When this occurs, I have to pay careful attention to the reports, depositions and other legal documents that accompany the evidence.  This paper trail must be part of an unbroken timeline that shows exactly where the evidence has been between its creation and my examination of it.  When I encounter any gaps in this timeline that can raise questions to the authenticity of the evidence, further investigation becomes necessary.

There are occasions when I am asked by the client to physically retrieve the evidence directly from the recorder that created it.  This process creates the chain of custody for my investigation.  When an expert creates the chain of custody, it removes all doubt as to the authenticity of the evidence.   This process has become more common throughout my investigations when the original evidence is available for my retrieval.  To further authenticate this process, I create audio and video recordings of the retrieval process, which becomes part of the chain of custody. In addition, when I am at the site and I retrieve the digital evidence, I have access to the administrator information about that evidence, such as an administrative log, date and file info, and who accessed the files.  The more information an expert can retrieve strengthens the authentic chain of custody that is created.

Primeau Forensics’ chain of custody process

  • Save original package materials
  • Take photos of physical evidence
  • Take screenshots of digital evidence content
  • Document date, time and any other information of receipt
  • Ingest a bit for bit clone of digital evidence content into our forensic computers
  • Perform a hash test analysis to further authenticate working clone

All of the above information outlined in our forensic procedure for creating a chain of custody is important and necessary to include when creating a forensic report.

When examining digital media evidence, especially digital audio and video recordings, you should never examine the original file.  Always make sure that when you process a piece of evidence, you work on the copy of that file so that the original remains untouched at all times.  That way, if you have to go back to compare your work product to the original, you’ll have that original file preserved.

It doesn’t matter what forensic science you are an expert in.  The chain of custody is always important.  Maintaining that chain of custody is crucial for the credibility of your work product and eventual testimony.

5: How to Perform a Voice Identification

Monday, September 29th, 2014

5: How to Perform a Voice IdentificationVoice Identification (also known as Speaker Recognition) plays a very important part in the forensic world.  I practice voice identification regularly as an Audio Forensic Expert and I believe it is a viable and often crucial science when working on a forensic assignment.  I chose this topic for this podcast because I just released my new book “That’s Not My Voice!: A Practical Understanding of the Art and Science of Modern Voice Identification.”  In my book, I cover the basics of human hearing and my approach to voice identification.

How do you perform a voice identification?

The process of voice identification is done through multiple steps.  The first step is critical listening.  When you first receive a recording from a client, its important to listen through the recording in its entirety and take detailed notes on what you hear.  In order to continue with the voice identification process, an exemplar is needed as a comparison to the recording in question.  Exemplars are supervised recordings of predetermined spoken word samples strictly made for voice identification comparison.  Electronic measurement has become possible with audio software that include spectrum graphs.  This allows you gather notes on specific information on the frequency ranges of the two recordings.  Visual inspection of the waveform should be done next.  During this step, you will analyze and compare the waveform of each recording.  Words will have different lengths and varying levels for different syllables in the words.

Emergency Voice Identifications are cases where creating an exemplar of the voice in question is not an option.  This is typically when a threat has been called in to a company and they believe they know who called in the threat.  In these cases, I must use any possible recording of the accused person such as a recorded voice mail or outgoing voice message.  These are difficult cases but it is very important that the company stay in control of the situation before approaching the suspected person.

Now listen in with Ed Primeau as he discusses the Voice Identification and the steps that must be taken to accurately and effectively perform the process.

For more on Voice Identification, check out Ed Primeau’s latest book, “That’s Not My Voice!” available on Amazon.

Forensic Experts Are Worth The Investment

Thursday, June 7th, 2012

Forensic Experts Are Worth The InvestmentWhen introducing a new litigator to audio and video forensics, I like to use the analogy of car repair. You can have your car repaired by a corner or back yard mechanic that charges forty dollars an hour. It might take that back yard mechanic ten hours to fix the problem. OR, you can take your car to the dealership which charges seventy five dollars an hour and have it repaired in two hours. The difference is in the experience and credibility. The dealership will also take the time and explain what needs to be repaired and provide options and an understanding of the repair process. The dealership’s experience with and knowledge of that make and model of the car saves them time making the repair and helps you the customer better understand the nature of the problem.

The same is true regarding a forensic expert. Forensic experts have experience with each forensic academic and can save litigators time and money when it comes to understanding forensic evidence and investigations.
Primeau Forensics is a vehicle for you to get answers to the questions you have about your multi-media evidence that is being used in litigation. As an audio and video forensic expert, I often find that courts, lawyers, and litigators get confused as to the purpose and the validity of their forensic evidence—which is where we help. Today there are dozens of CCTV digital video formats and audio recordings everywhere that contribute to evidence. That information needs to be simplified and better understood by courts and litigators.

Primeau Forensics is a growing forensic organization. It will soon include Internet forensics, security forensics, cell phone forensics, smart phone forensics, and other related multi-media forensic services. Audio and video is being recorded everywhere, not just CCTV (closed on circuit television systems) and police car dash cameras. Audio and video is used more today in litigation than ever before. Knowing some simple facts about your audio and video evidence from a forensic perspective is extremely important to you and the decision makers. Primeau Forensics is here to help. We welcome any questions, comments or feedback either by email– primeauforensics@gmail.com or by phone–(800) 647-4281.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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